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Urology is a part of health care that deals with diseases of the male and female urinary tract (kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra). It also deals with the male organs that are able to make babies (penis, testes, scrotum, prostate, etc.).

A urologist is a medical specialist who undergoes training in diseases of the male and female urinary systems, as well as the male reproductive system. Due to the variety of clinical problems encountered, urologists must have a wide range of knowledge regarding internal medicine, gynecology, pediatrics and other specialties. Urologists are also trained as surgeons, and offer patients surgical options for many urologic health conditions. 

While they often collaborate on patient care, a urologist is different than a nephrologist. Nephrology is a separate field of medicine that specifically focuses on kidney function and disease. While a urologist treats patients for kidney stones or kidney cancer – offering surgical options, a nephrologist treats patients who have diabetes. Nephrology is a non-surgical field, which mean that nephrologists are not surgeons.

Urology is known as a surgical specialty. Besides surgery, a urologist is a doctor with wisdom of internal medicine, pediatrics, gynecology and other parts of health care. This is because a urologist encounters a wide range of clinical problems.

The scope of urology is big and the American Urological Association has named seven subspecialty parts:

  • Pediatric Urology (children's urology)

  • Urologic Oncology (urologic cancers)

  • Renal (kidney) Transplant

  • Male Infertility

  • Calculi (urinary tract stones)

  • Female Urology

  • Neurourology (nervous system control of genitourinary organs)

Surgeons in Operating Room


Doctor Holding Patient's Hand




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